Thinking Tools #3 – An upside down way to find gaps in our thinking

Thinking Tools #3 – An upside down way to find gaps in our thinking

The first time I recall using the inversion strategy was during my interview with McKinsey.

I remember a Senior Engagement Manager called Saimond putting me through my paces around a case and then posing a leading observation.

“So, you have given me some great demand side ideas there …”

As someone with a kindergarten teaching and then communication background I had not used economic concepts much. But thankfully I had helped review my university boyfriend's economics essays and twigged that he wanted more and different ideas from me.

So, I responded that he was right, and that perhaps he would like some supply side ideas too?

I then invented some on the spot. Using opposites has turned out to be a useful thinking strategy in many situations since.

It is also another model discussed in Shane Parrish's new book The Great Mental Models which I posted about last week.

Given some of you have asked me to pick my way through Shane's models in bite-sized stages, I am extending my series of posts on this book. Today's focus is on opposites, or as Shane Parrish calls them ‘inversions'.

There are a number of natural places to use this strategy.

Firstly, when choosing a set of options to evaluate. He offers two strategies to help you use inversions:

  1. Start by assuming that what you are trying to prove is either true or false, then show what else would have to be true
  2. Instead of aiming directly for your goal, think deeply about what you want to avoid and then see what options are left over

Secondly, when ensuring our ideas are MECE. This works both when we are communicating and also when solving problems (which I will talk more about during the Hypothesis-driven Problem Solving series I am planning for March).

I thought you may find it useful to have a list of examples of where I have used inversions recently that you could also apply in your own communication. 

I have ordered them according to the three lenses we use for checking whether our ideas are ordered well:


  • Internal versus external (eg as in forces acting on something)
  • Supply versus demand (eg economics)
  • Hard versus soft perspectives (eg McKinsey 7S framework)


  • Current versus past or future (eg activities, plans)
  • Experienced versus inexperienced (eg team members)
  • Old versus young / new (eg equipment, technology)


  • Hot versus cold (eg could be literal or metaphorical)
  • Increasing versus decreasing (eg prices)
  • Large versus small (eg anything measurable!)

Remember: step one when organising your ideas from the bottom up is to work out the categories. Step two is to work out what you are saying about those categories.

I hope that helps.

Talk soon,


PS – Related posts include:

From this series …
  1. 5 Ways to be MECE in your communication
  2. Further thinking tools

Past posts on thinking skills …
  1. How to use your critical thinking abilities to turbo charge your communication
  2. Strengthen your critical thinking abilities
  3. 4 Ideas to make structured thinking stick
  4. Awesome problem solving strategies
  5. The value of thinking-top down versus bottom-up (for Sprint and Momentum Members)

PPS – I receive a small commission if you click the link and decide to purchase a copy of Shane's book from Amazon.


I loved my ‘fast fly’ through this book and am realizing how much more I am finding useful by going slowly and preparing these posts for you.

Thank you!

I am still in the introduction reading about the power and dangers associated with mental models and the concept of blind spots has jumped out at me as worth our attention.

In the Great Mental Models Vol 1, Shane Parrish suggests that we need a latticework of mental models to be maximally effective.

He quotes Alain de Botton from How to Make a Decision

“The chief enemy of good decisions is a lack of sufficient perspectives on a problem”


Taken together these points are a powerful reminder on how to avoid blind spots.

Bring people together who have a variety of models in their heads to work through any problem.

In our world of storylining, there are many ways to collaborate to get to a better answer faster. Here are two strategies:

  1. Prepare an initial one-pager before discussing with colleagues and then stakeholders. This is a great strategy if you have a fairly solid knowledge of your content and have colleagues who are ‘Driver’ styles and would prefer to react to a draft than be drawn into the often-messy thinking process. Once you have incorporated feedback from your colleagues and stakeholders, it is then time to turn those ideas into a doc. Assuming, that is, you still need to present them after your discussions. You may not … the job might be done by then.
  1. Get in a room (virtual or physical, depending on how you work) and build either an outline or your whole storyline together from the ground up.
    • If leading a group to collaborate on a doc, you may want to work through the initial elements together (purpose, audience, CTQA) and then agree who will write what sections. You might sketch out the top line argument before sending them off, or stop at the ‘So What’, depending on what works for that story. You will of course want to come back and check once everyone has drafted their section. Experience tells us that these initial sessions increase the chance that a doc prepared collaboratively will sound like it has ‘one voice’.
    • If collaborating with peers, you may like to build the whole thing together in a few sessions on a whiteboard or using one of our one-page strategy templates.

I hope that helps.

More next week!


PS - Related posts include:


From this series ...

  1. A fabulous thinking tool to help you solve problems and communicate
  2. Further thinking tools 
  3. Thinking Tools #3 - An upside down way to find gaps in our thinking
  4. Thinking Tools #4 - Getting out of your own way

Related Topic ...

  1. The One Page Strategy Working Styles 
  2. Template - Design Your Strategy 
  3. Awesome problem solving strategies




PPS - I receive a small commission if you click the link and decide to purchase a copy of Shane's book from Amazon.





Davina has helped smart people all over the world clarify and communicate complex ideas for 20+ years.

She began this work when she joined McKinsey & Company as a communication specialist in Hong Kong where she helped others use the Minto Pyramid Principle. She continued helping others when living in New York, Tokyo and now back in Australia.

Her clients include mid to upper level experts across many disciplines across Australia, Asia Pacific, New Zealand, the UK and the US.